hionix logo image


Process Capability

Our strong knowledge base, including R&D scientists, engineers, and experienced management, makes Thin Film Processing in sputtering technology possible, delivering solutions of utmost importance to our customers.

Capabilities of our sputtering systems

Low temp deposition

Class 100 Clean Room

Film uniformity


Process control Parameters

Characteristics of D­Source Dynamic Magnetron Sputter Deposition:

PVD Sputtering

PVD Coating and Thin Film Deposition is the technology of applying a very thin film of material – between a few nanometers to about 100 micrometers. Thin Film Deposition manufacturing processes are at the heart of today’s semiconductor, solar panel, CD, disk drive, and optical device industries. We have in-house tools capable of thin film deposition using D-source magnetron sputtering technology. Magnetron Sputtering is a Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process in which a plasma is created and positively charged ions from the plasma are accelerated by an electrical field superimposed on the negatively charged electrode or “target”. The positive ions are accelerated by potentials ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand electron volts and strike the negative electrode with sufficient force to dislodge and eject atoms from the target.

Fully Automated PVD Processing Services:

Reactive sputter deposition:

hionix Automated PVD Processing Services PVD coating image
Fully Automated PVD Processing Services
Reactive sputter deposition

Reactive sputter deposition:



hionix atomic force microscopy thin film deposition Metrology services image

XE-100 AFM:



hionix X-Ray diffraction analysis thin film deposition Metrology services image
hionix X-Ray diffraction analysis thin film deposition Metrology services image

Siemens D5000 XRD :



A thin film that is deposited on a substrate or is part of a multi-film stack structure will exhibit residual stress that depends on the film thickness. In general, the residual stress of the film, crucial for stress analysis such as Stress Analysis, is defined as the stress that the film will experience when it is in a stand-alone condition or not in contact with any other surface. Film stress is usually classified into two classes:

Intrinsic Stresses:

Extrinsic Stresses:

Tensile and Compressive Stress In case of PVD films, residual stress arises because of (a) difference in coefficient of thermal expansion of the film and the substrate at the time of cool down from deposition temperature, and (b) adsorbed atoms not condensing into a state of low energy or equilibrium with one another. Such residual stresses are like stored energy that can be released during subsequent processing steps or with time, emphasizing the importance of stress analysis. For materials with high elastic modulus like Cr, W or metal oxides, very high stresses can be attained with a large amount of stored energy. For low elastic modulus materials like Au or Ag, plastic deformation will occur to relieve stress before high levels of stress are attained.

hionix Tensile and Compressive Stress PVD films image
Compressive/Tensile Stress
hionix tin tress tuning PVD film image
TiN Stress Tuning

The distribution of stress along the thickness of the film is important factor in determining the behavior of the film. If the stress is not uniform throughout the thickness of the film, the film will curl up when detached from the substrate. If it is uniform, the film will lie flat. Film under tensile stress will try to contract, bowing the substrate in the process such that the film is on the concave side. If the film is under compressive stress, it will try to expand bowing the substrate such that film is on the convex side. Tensile stress relieves itself through formation of micro-cracks and subsequent peeling of the cracked surface from the substrate. Compressive stress relieves itself by buckling visible in the form of “worm tracks” or “blisters” on the film surface (see graphic below).

Film stress can be tuned from compressive regime into tensile regime by changing key process parameters such as Power, process gas flow (Ar), substrate temperature etc. Below is an example of such process tuning achieved for TiN (Titanium Nitride).